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Monday, December 9

  1. page Caitlin Cowan edited My favourite colour... RED My favourite food... Ma's chicken curry {spicy_chicken_masala_r…

    My favourite colour...
    RED
    My favourite food...
    Ma's chicken curry
    {spicy_chicken_masala_recipe.JPG} Not quite like Ma's, but close enough
    My favourite movie...
    Strictly Ballroom
    My thesis...
    is on the effects of early life trauma on fear memory and extinction in developing rats. Previously, it's been shown that rats that have experienced stress in early life have longer-lasting fear memories that are prone to relapse after extinction training . This may be partly explained by increased stress responsivity in those rats. Stress responsivity is normalised by treatment with probiotics , so I'm looking at whether probiotics will affect fear memory in infant rats that have experienced early life stress. {callaghanrichardson.pdf}
    Return Home
    Callaghan & Richardson (2011, 2012)
    Gareau, Jury, MacQueen, Sherman, & Perdue (2007)

    (view changes)
    11:31 pm

Friday, September 28

  1. page 'Just for Fun' - the Geek Edition edited ... Not a video, but a link to an interesting article about how the review process for one researc…
    ...
    Not a video, but a link to an interesting article about how the review process for one researcher got out of hand:
    Researcher conducts fake reviews of his own studies
    Was looking for a synonym for "interact" when this popped up! I know we're finished with websites, but felt like I should share this!
    Can babies have an accent before they speak?

    On the Theme of Plagiarism
    Well known journalist/blogger Jonah Lehrer busted for plagiarism, fabrication, and science fraud. It is not acceptable to copy others work, even on the internet.
    (view changes)
    6:37 am

Thursday, September 27

  1. page memorytargetarticle edited ... BUT these are done with experimenter-child interactions and does not tap into the natural and …
    ...
    BUT these are done with experimenter-child interactions and does not tap into the natural and more frequent interactions between parents and children. Using training manipulations can help researchers do this!
    "Training" studies
    ‍‍‍Peterson,‍‍‍‍Peterson, Jesso and
    ...
    as cited by‍‍by‍‍‍ Van Bergen
    Mothers trained to ask 43 month old children more open-ended and context-eliciting questions.
    The result: an immediate increase in vocabulary, and one year later, memory narratives with more context-specific descriptions
    ...
    3. Post-training assessment
    4. 6-month follow-up assessment {mother training.gif}
    ‍‍‍Training:‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Training:‍‍‍‍
    -Mothers receive verbal encouragement from experimenters
    -They then watch a video to demonstrate instructions
    ...
    3. Confirmations: agree or disagree with information already provided in the same conversation
    Total number of each counted, and means per event were calculated.
    ‍‍‍Emotion Knowledge:‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Emotion Knowledge:‍‍‍‍
    -Denham's Emotion Knowledge Task
    -Emotion Cause Knowledge Task
    ...
    => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following show only shared recall with mother)
    --- Children's Reminiscing Style
    ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ {high elab
    ...
    condition x time‍‍‍time‍‍‍‍
    Figure 1. Children in the Reminiscing Training condition showed a significant increase in high-elaborative utterances at post-training (while there was no significant increase between groups at pre-training). Furthermore, high-elaborative utterances were significantly higher at 6 month follow up than at post-training, while across all three assessment times, there was no significant difference in the number of high-elaborative utterances for children in the control condition.
    --- Children's Emotion Content
    ...
    Figure 2. Children in the control training condition showed no difference in number of emotion-oriented utterances between the three assessment periods. However, children in the reminiscing training condition showed a significant increase in emotion-oriented utterances in the post-training assessment (compared to pre-training), however this decreased slightly at the 6-month follow up. However it was still significantly higher relative to both the same group's score at pre-training, and also compared to the control group.
    --- Children's Emotional Knowledge
    ...
    no effect of‍‍‍of‍‍‍‍ condition, or
    ...
    the two. ThatT‍hat is, emotion
    --- Children's Emotion Cause Knowledge
    {emotion cause.png} No main effect of time, and only a marginal effect of condition. Interaction effect significant though
    Figure 3. The effect of training style on emotion cause knowledge between pre-training and post-training was marginal only. However at the six month follow up, this effect was significant, such that children in the reminscing training condition had significantly higher scores on emotion cause knowledge than children in the control condition.
    ---‍‍‍ Hypothese‍‍‍s:---‍‍‍‍ Hypothese‍‍‍‍s:
    "During both shared and independent recall, children in the reminiscing condition would:
    -increase high-elaborative utterances
    (view changes)
    4:05 pm
  2. page memorytargetarticle edited ... => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following…
    ...
    => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following show only shared recall with mother)
    --- Children's Reminiscing Style
    Figure 1. Children in the Reminiscing Training condition showed a significant increase in high-elaborative utterances at post-training (while there was no significant increase between groups at pre-training). Furthermore, high-elaborative utterances were significantly higher at 6 month follow up than at post-training, while across all three assessment times, there was no significant difference in the number of high-elaborative utterances for children in the control condition.
    ‍‍‍ {high elab utterances.png} Main effect of condition, not time; interaction effect of condition x time‍‍‍
    Figure 1. Children in the Reminiscing Training condition showed a significant increase in high-elaborative utterances at post-training (while there was no significant increase between groups at pre-training). Furthermore, high-elaborative utterances were significantly higher at 6 month follow up than at post-training, while across all three assessment times, there was no significant difference in the number of high-elaborative utterances for children in the control condition.
    --- Children's Emotion Content
    Figure 2. Children in the control training condition showed no difference in number of emotion-oriented utterances between the three assessment periods. However, children in the reminiscing training condition showed a significant increase in emotion-oriented utterances in the post-training assessment (compared to pre-training), however this decreased slightly at the 6-month follow up. However it was still significantly higher relative to both the same group's score at pre-training, and also compared to the control group.
    {emotion utterances.png} Again, main effect of condition, not time - and interaction effect of time x condition
    Figure 2. Children in the control training condition showed no difference in number of emotion-oriented utterances between the three assessment periods. However, children in the reminiscing training condition showed a significant increase in emotion-oriented utterances in the post-training assessment (compared to pre-training), however this decreased slightly at the 6-month follow up. However it was still significantly higher relative to both the same group's score at pre-training, and also compared to the control group.
    --- Children's Emotional Knowledge
    ...
    between the two.‍‍‍two. That is, emotion knowledge increased over time for children across all conditions, but there no significant difference in emotional knowledge between the two conditions.‍‍‍
    --- Children's Emotion Cause Knowledge
    {emotion cause.png} No main effect of time, and only a marginal effect of condition. Interaction effect significant though
    Figure 3. The effect of training style on emotion cause knowledge between pre-training and post-training was marginal only. However at the six month follow up, this effect was significant, such that children in the reminscing training condition had significantly higher scores on emotion cause knowledge than children in the control condition.
    ---‍‍‍ Hypothese‍‍‍s:
    "During both shared and independent recall, children in the reminiscing condition would:
    (view changes)
    4:04 pm
  3. page memorytargetarticle edited ... => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following…
    ...
    => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following show only shared recall with mother)
    --- Children's Reminiscing Style
    Figure 1. Children in the Reminiscing Training condition showed a significant increase in high-elaborative utterances at post-training (while there was no significant increase between groups at pre-training). Furthermore, high-elaborative utterances were significantly higher at 6 month follow up than at post-training, while across all three assessment times, there was no significant difference in the number of high-elaborative utterances for children in the control condition.
    ‍‍‍ {high elab utterances.png} Main effect of condition, not time; interaction effect of condition x time‍‍‍
    --- Children's Emotion Content
    Figure 2. Children in the control training condition showed no difference in number of emotion-oriented utterances between the three assessment periods. However, children in the reminiscing training condition showed a significant increase in emotion-oriented utterances in the post-training assessment (compared to pre-training), however this decreased slightly at the 6-month follow up. However it was still significantly higher relative to both the same group's score at pre-training, and also compared to the control group.
    {emotion utterances.png} Again, main effect of condition, not time - and interaction effect of time x condition
    --- Children's Emotional Knowledge
    (view changes)
    3:59 pm
  4. comment memorytargetarticle comment reply The text above is results for mothers (these graphs are for children's results) - maybe this wasn't…
    comment reply
    The text above is results for mothers (these graphs are for children's results) - maybe this wasn't clear so I have tried to amend headings and formatting to try and make it more obvious that the above is results re mothers, and here are results re children. Thanks for the heads up though :)
    3:50 pm
  5. comment memorytargetarticle comment reply Thought Q! :D
    comment reply
    Thought Q! :D
    3:49 pm
  6. page memorytargetarticle edited ... BUT these are done with experimenter-child interactions and does not tap into the natural and …
    ...
    BUT these are done with experimenter-child interactions and does not tap into the natural and more frequent interactions between parents and children. Using training manipulations can help researchers do this!
    "Training" studies
    ‍‍Peterson,‍‍‍Peterson, Jesso and
    ...
    as cited by‍by‍‍ Van Bergen
    Mothers trained to ask 43 month old children more open-ended and context-eliciting questions.
    The result: an immediate increase in vocabulary, and one year later, memory narratives with more context-specific descriptions
    ...
    3. Post-training assessment
    4. 6-month follow-up assessment {mother training.gif}
    ‍‍Training:‍‍‍‍‍Training:‍‍‍
    -Mothers receive verbal encouragement from experimenters
    -They then watch a video to demonstrate instructions
    ...
    3. Confirmations: agree or disagree with information already provided in the same conversation
    Total number of each counted, and means per event were calculated.
    ‍‍Emotion Knowledge:‍‍‍‍‍Emotion Knowledge:‍‍‍
    -Denham's Emotion Knowledge Task
    -Emotion Cause Knowledge Task
    ...
    Results
    Mother's:
    --- Mother's Reminiscing Style
    Main effect of condition, not time, on mothers' reminiscing style
    Time x condition interaction for wh- questions, info statements and high-elaborative utterances
    No effect for low-elaborative utterances
    --- Mother's Emotion Content
    Time x condition interaction (number of emotion references, that is) - but main effect only of condition, not time
    --- Hypotheses:Hypotheses re mothers:
    "Mothers in the reminiscing condition will increase their use of a high-elaborative style and emotion content following training"
    Hypothesis SUPPORTED by the evidence shown in the results, i.e. mothers in the reminiscing condition did increase their use of a high-elaborative style and emotion content following training
    ...
    Children's:
    => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following show only shared recall with mother)
    --- Children's Reminiscing Style
    ‍‍

    ‍‍‍
    {high elab
    ...
    condition x time‍‍time‍‍‍
    --- Children's Emotion Content
    {emotion utterances.png} Again, main effect of condition, not time - and interaction effect of time x condition
    --- Children's Emotional Knowledge
    ...
    no effect of‍‍of‍‍‍ condition, or
    ...
    between the two.‍‍two.‍‍‍
    --- Children's Emotion Cause
    {emotion cause.png} No main effect of time, and only a marginal effect of condition. Interaction effect significant though
    ---‍‍ Hypothese‍‍s:---‍‍‍ Hypothese‍‍‍s:
    "During both shared and independent recall, children in the reminiscing condition would:
    -increase high-elaborative utterances
    (view changes)
    3:49 pm
  7. page memorytargetarticle edited ... BUT these are done with experimenter-child interactions and does not tap into the natural and …
    ...
    BUT these are done with experimenter-child interactions and does not tap into the natural and more frequent interactions between parents and children. Using training manipulations can help researchers do this!
    "Training" studies
    ‍Peterson,‍‍Peterson, Jesso and
    ...
    as cited byby‍ Van Bergen
    Mothers trained to ask 43 month old children more open-ended and context-eliciting questions.
    The result: an immediate increase in vocabulary, and one year later, memory narratives with more context-specific descriptions
    {peterson et al 1999.pdf}
    Reese and Newcombe; as cited by Van Bergen et al, 2009.
    Mothers trained to ask 19 month toddlers open-ended questions and confirm their contributions.
    The result: at 34 months (15 months later), children of trained mothers provided more memory elaborations both during shared recall with their mothers, and with an experimenter also
    {reese newcombe 2007.pdf}
    The current study
    Also looking at training, but also including an active control condition (not previously done in training experiments) and focusing on emotion.
    ...
    3. Post-training assessment
    4. 6-month follow-up assessment {mother training.gif}
    ‍Training:‍‍‍Training:‍‍
    -Mothers receive verbal encouragement from experimenters
    -They then watch a video to demonstrate instructions
    ...
    -Building on kids' detailed descriptions
    -Discussing emotions
    Control group: had exactly the same number of assessment and training sessions, except instead of child-directed speech, they had child-directed play with their mothers (all else remained equal). This meant that both mothers and children had same time with each other and experimenters across all conditions, and the contols also had instructed child-directed behaviour (play versus speech) so as to account for any possible confounds (e.g. attentiveness) that had nothing to do with style of speech.
    Assessment:
    Memory conversations:
    ...
    3. Confirmations: agree or disagree with information already provided in the same conversation
    Total number of each counted, and means per event were calculated.
    ‍Emotion Knowledge:‍‍‍Emotion Knowledge:‍‍
    -Denham's Emotion Knowledge Task
    -Emotion Cause Knowledge Task
    ...
    => Note: no significant effects for independent recall with experimenter (all the following show only shared recall with mother)
    --- Reminiscing Style
    ‍‍ {high elab
    ...
    condition x time‍time‍‍
    --- Emotion Content
    {emotion utterances.png} Again, main effect of condition, not time - and interaction effect of time x condition
    --- Emotional Knowledge
    ...
    no effect of‍of‍‍ condition, or
    ...
    between the two.‍two.‍‍
    --- Emotion Cause Knowledge
    {emotion cause.png} No main effect of time, and only a marginal effect of condition. Interaction effect significant though
    ---‍ Hypothese‍s:---‍‍ Hypothese‍‍s:
    "During both shared and independent recall, children in the reminiscing condition would:
    -increase high-elaborative utterances
    (view changes)
    3:47 pm

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